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Kansas State University, United States
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States
The Covid-19 pandemic caused a sudden shift in foreign language education from face-to-face instruction to online teaching in the United States over the spring of 2020. From perspectives of both teachers and students, this small-scale, exploratory study investigated the impacts of online teaching on class interactions during the pandemic. Twenty-three teachers and 24 students from college-level Chinese courses were surveyed online to solicit their perceptions of the impacts of online teaching on teacher-student and student-student interactions. One audio-clip of 50-minute elementary-level, online CFL class and a retrospective interview with the teacher of this class were also analyzed to provide an in-depth understanding of the online interaction. Findings showed the same or higher frequency of teacher-student interaction in online teaching as compared with that in face-to-face instruction, but the interaction became more teacher-initiated and teacher-centered. In addition, teacher and student participants perceived less interaction among students. The teacher participating in the retrospective interview reported changes in how she gave feedback in online teaching, e.g., when interacting with individual students, she tended to give explicit feedback; while interacting with the whole class, she was not able to provide immediate feedback due to technology constraints. Regarding the effects of these changes on L2 learning, participants voiced mixed opinions, but the majority evaluated the online student-student interaction as less effective than that in face-to-face instruction. The findings were discussed in light of the interaction approach of SLA, and corresponding pedagogical implications were proposed to foster the effectiveness of online instruction in CFL learning contexts.
Online teaching, teacher-student interaction, learner-learner interaction, Chinese as a foreign language
2020 年春季新冠疫情的爆发，使美国的外语教学从面对面的课堂教学突然转变为线上网络教学。为了研究新冠疫情背景下在线教学可能对课堂互动带来的影响，这篇文章采取问卷调查的方式，对来自美国大学的23 名汉语教师和24 名汉语二语学习者关于线上教学对课堂互动的影响进行了探索式的研究。此外，文章还录音并分析了一名汉语教师的一堂50 分钟的线上教学，并对这名汉语教师进行了回顾式访谈，来辅助分析问卷调查的结果。研究发现，与面对面的课堂教学相比，线上教学中的师生互动频率有了明显的增加，而且主要以教师发起互动为主，并且多以教师为互动的中心。此外，教师和学生都报告了学生与学生之间的互动频率明显减少。在回顾式访谈中，汉语教师也指出了网络教学影响了她提供教学反馈的方式，比如，在和个别学生进行互动的时候，她倾向于提供显性的反馈；但是在和所有学生进行互动的时候，由于技术限制而无法提供及时的反馈。虽然参与调查的教师和学生对线上教学给课堂互动带来的影响有不同的看法，但是多数都认为线上教学背景下学生互动的有效性不如面对面的课堂教学理想。最后，文章根据二语习得理论对研究结果进行了进一步的讨论，并针对在汉语作为外语教学情境下如何更好开展线上教学也提供了一些建议。